Psychological tests


Psychological tests, also known as psychological assessments, are written or verbal tests created to evaluate an individual’s behavior (Benson et al., 2019). Personality tests are relevant in psychology; the tests can be administered, scored, and interpreted in the field of practice. They can assist users in guiding therapeutic interventions, clarify clinical diagnoses and predict how specific individuals may respond in certain situations. We describe and access personality daily through discussions about others and ourselves, referring to our distinct characteristics. Similarly, psychologists also do that on a scientific and systematic level. For this essay, I will use personalty type-based assessments. From the personality category, I will work with Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory IV (MCM IV), Neo Personality Inventory-4, and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality inventory 2 (MMPI-2).

In psychology, according to Stachl et al. (2020), personality tests are used for reasons such as evaluating the effectiveness of therapy, assessing theories, looking at personality changes, diagnosing psychological problems, and screening candidates for jobs in forensic settings. In addition, they are used in child custody disputes to conduct a risk assessment and establish competence. The tests are related to furthering Skills and knowledge in psychology in career and occupation counseling, school psychology, clinical psychology relationship counseling, and employment testing.

Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory IV (MCM IV)

Purpose for Testing

The MCMI-IV assessment was published in 2015 and can be used in counseling, clinical, government, medical and forensic settings (Price, 2019). It is used to assist users in identifying clients who need intensive evaluation. The reports from this assessment provide an in-depth analysis of symptoms and personality dynamics and include action-oriented suggestions for therapeutic management. The Benefit of the test is that it helps the clinician make informed treatment plans and decisions and identify severe clinical issues. Assess disorders based on ICD -10 and DSM 5 classification systems and quickly identify clients who need intensive assessment and access (Janet, 2021et al.).


The test has a scale that provides a more profound comprehension of an adult patient who experiences abnormal personality traits. In addition, the test items are updated, characterizing how Millons Personality theory has evolved and has been refreshed to enhance clinical relevance and clarity. It also contains improved content that integrates therapeutic practice and results and links them to personalized treatment (Price, 2019).

Normative Sample

The test is set for people above 18 years of age and above. The reading level is for 5th grade, and scores are interpreted using adult outpatient and inpatient clinical samples. According to Price (2019), The people who can use it need to be in qualification level C, and it needs to be completed in about twenty-thirty minutes. The items in the test include yes or no answers, and the scoring options ranged from web-based to software report options which are O global and O local. The reports are either profiles of interpretive reality and adopted norms based on a clinical adult population of about 1500 females and males with various diagnoses (Sellbom et al., 2022). The normative samples are about 1546 people from solely clinical contexts; however, the MCMI-IV normative sample does not include individuals from forensic populations directly. The psychometric properties of the Persian version of MCMI-IV, including reliability and validity indexes, are suitable and in line with the results of its original version ( Mohammadi et al., 2021)

Test-User Knowledge, Skills, and Training

According to Sellbom et al. (2022), MCMI-IV provides helpful clinical insights into a patient’s personality, allowing clinicians to make reliable diagnostic and treatment decisions. The test Is a Pearson assessment with an established system for testing the user qualifications based on the expertise required to administer purchase and score every test. The qualifications vary from where there are required in level A to where the user has a doctorate in education, psychology, or my closely related field, qualification level C. yes, being a professional in the field of psychology, as stated by Price (2019). After getting a doctorate, I can be qualified to administer the test in level A and level C. As a psychologist, I can use the test to make reliable diagnostic and treatment decisions for psychiatric patients.

Neo Personality Inventory-4

Purpose for Testing

The NEO -4 developed by Costa, P., & McCrae, R. in 2010 gives information on four personality dynamics Openness to Experience, Consciousness, Extraversion, and Agreeableness (Azkhosh et al., 2019). It is created for personal counseling and employment settings in career development, career counseling, and employee training, where the four domains are the main focus. Three short validity checks are provided on answer sheets. It contains 192 questionnaire items, and the scoring keys are E, Q A, and C, similar to NEO PI-R’s factors.

Normative Sample, Sampling Procedures, and Intended Population

The age range is adults and children between the age of 1 to 99 years, and it is administered individually. Each domain in the NEO 4 provides information on various aspects of an individual’s personality. Each of these domains is interpreted at the global factor level using 24 facet scales with six for every domain. In addition, the NEO 4 has a way to interpret these domains using six personality styles, such as interactions and interests, activity, learning character, and attitudes. (Azkhosh et al., 2019). The NEO Personality Inventory gives good support for reliability and validity. Internal dependability coefficients were calculated at 0.86 to 0.95 for both the forms (observer and self). The upbeat presentation management (PPM) and The Negative Presentation Management (PPM) scales were found to have internal consistency reliability. In addition, the pattern of discriminant and convergent correlations supported the validity of these scales with respective Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) validity scales. Lastly, individuals’ PAI profiles with valid NPM differed significantly from those with invalid NPM scores(Janet, 2021et al.). The distinction between profiles from other clinical samples and invalid profiles. Provide additional support to the use NPM scale as a measure of negative impression management. In Psychology, a sample of clients who have come in need of guidance due to work stress or career change can receive help by knowing their most dominant trait of the five character traits described in the test.

Test-User Knowledge, Skills, and Training

It entails a reusable item booklet necessary for self-report. Form S is used for rating, while R is an answer sheet. The test is mainly used by employers when recruiting employees and is an assessment tool for a job. In psychology, I can use the test as a career counselor to guide individuals looking for jobs or companies hiring staff.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality inventory 2 (MMPI-2)

Purpose for Testing

In 1949 The first l Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was published by Hathaway and McKinley; the revised version, MMPI -2, was established in 1989 (Giromini et al., 2019). The practical Test construction technique was used to develop this MMPI. It is highly used in assessing adult psychopathology globally. In addition, it is used in medical, mental health, and employment settings.

Test-User Knowledge,

According to Giromini et al. (2019), It entails testing scales such as the hypochondriasis scale. The information gained from MMPI _2 is helpful in occupational health settings where the clinician doubts what is wrong with a patient. It is also used in assessing psychological stability in workers in high-risk professions such as police, airline pilots, or workers in the nuclear power industry. However, the test is disadvantageous for physicians in these settings because it is strictly licensed; thus, it can only be administered, purchased, or interpreted by a well-experienced clinical psychologist or psychiatrist. Thus, it should be seen as a challenging diagnostic investigation that is not used frequently (Janet, 2021et al.).

Normative Sample

It is completed In Two and a half hours and contains 567 items that are true or false questions. The results are gained through self-reports to measure an individual’s psychological state. It has nine validity scales, including defensiveness, faking foul, and assessment for lying, among others. They are also called lie scales, making it very hard for clients to fake the results. The measure contains clinical scales that assess mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Personality characteristics such as psychopathy and general personality traits such as somatization, anger, and addiction potential, are measured (Giromini et al., 2019).

The scale was validated through a normative sample that contained 2600 adults. In addition, almost 10000 published papers that use this scale. For example, research was carried out using the assessment tool for 161 male and 307 female patients with chronic pain (Giromini et al., 2019). The conclusion was that there is a strong relationship between conversion disorder and reported pain disorder, a relationship between physical and emotional pain. In conclusion, the test can be used to show the test’s utility in determining if a client has chronic pain would benefit best from psychological therapy or medical treatment.

Comparisons and Contrasts of the Three Tests

The three tests are similar because they are all used and applicable in psychology. They are used in the therapeutic process to help a counselor assess a client and are beneficial in providing necessary help for the counseling process. Regarding normative SampleSample, all the tests can be used by adults and children. Regarding test user knowledge, only the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality inventory 2 (MMPI-2) is limited to use and purchase by an experienced user. However, through critical analysis, The best test is the MMPI -2. It has testing scales on the test items that distinguish ordinary individuals from those with hypochondriasis. Thus it has questions about health issues to make these differentiations; This has two advantages; for instance, it makes it hard for clients to deny problems and give fake responses or a particular impression (Giromini et al., 2019). Also, it is based on research, not clinical assumptions on what answers. In conclusion, various psychological tests assist individuals in understanding different dynamics of life. It assists human beings in understanding why some people are good at some things and others are good at others.







Azkhosh, M., Sahaf, R., Rostami, M., & Ahmadi, A. (2019). Reliability and validity of the 10-item personality inventory among older Iranians. Psychology in Russia12(3), 28.

Benson, N. F., Floyd, R. G., Kranzler, J. H., Eckert, T. L., Fefer, S. A., & Morgan, G. B. (2019). Test use and assessment practices of school psychologists in the United States: Findings from the 2017 National Survey. Journal of School Psychology, 72, 29-48.

Giromini, L., Lettieri, S. C., Zizolfi, S., Zizolfi, D., Viglione, D. J., Brusadelli, E., … & Zennaro, A. (2019). Beyond rare-symptoms endorsement: A clinical comparison simulation study using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) with the Inventory of Problems-29 (IOP-29). Psychological Injury and Law, 12(3), 212-224.

Hsiung, K. S., Colditz, J. B., McGuier, E. A., Switzer, G. E., VonVille, H. M., Folb, B. L., & Kolko, D. J. (2021). Measures of organizational culture and climate in primary care: a systematic review. Journal of general internal medicine36(2), 487-499.

Martin Sellbom, Jay Flens, Jonathan Gould, Rowena Ramnath, Robert Tringone & Seth Grossman (2022) The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-IV (MCMI-IV) and Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory-II (MACI-II) in Legal Settings, Journal of Personality Assessment, 104:2, 203-220, DOI: 10.1080/00223891.2021.2013248

Mohammadi M.R.,Delavar, A., Hooshyari, Z., Shakiba, A., Salmnian, M., Ghandi., F.,…& Farnoody, N. (2021). Psychometric properties f the Persin Version of MILLONclinical Multilaxial Inventory-IV (MCMI-IV0 Iranian journal of psychiatry, 16(1),43.

Price, L. A. (2019). Millon clinical multiaxial inventory-IV (MCMI-IV) profile patterns and scale score correlates for jail inmates referred for mental health services.

Sellbom, M., Flens, J., Gould, J., Ramnath, R., Tringone, R., & Grossman, S. (2022). The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-IV (MCMI-IV) and Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory-II (MACI-II) in Legal Settings. Journal of Personality Assessment, 104(2), 203-220.

Stachl, C., Pargent, F., Hilbert, S., Harari, G. M., Schoedel, R., Vaid, S., … & Bühner, M. (2020). Personality research and assessment in the era of machine learning. European Journal of Personality, 34(5), 613-631.

The MMPI-2 can be obtained from

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