Network and System Management

Network and System Management
Unraveling loose packets
Level 3: Step 1
Theme: Networked Systems: DNS & DHCP
Due Date: 17/12/2021
Please take the following notes in consideration:
• In this assignment the questions marked with a (*) are practical and have to be shown to the
teacher (no report is needed).
• The remaining questions are to be answered in a written report, to be delivered to the teacher.
• Whenever possible, the VMs necessary to resolve the practical questions should be created as
linked clones.
1. When using the BIND9 DNS Server, Forward and Reverse Lookup zones ares stored in
local files called zone files. Investigate and describe their syntax giving an example of
both for an hypothetical linux.local domain.
2. Investigate the ISC DHCP Server support for Standard DDNS (Dynamic DNS) Updates
and provide a brief description of how it works.
3. In what circunstances and how is a zone transfer operated between BIND9 primary/secondary servers?
4. (*) Considering the DNS domain linux.local, with the hosts:
• l3s1h-dns1.linux.local (Debian Linux 11) – DNS server (primary/master);
• l3s1h-dns2.linux.local (Debian Linux 11) – DNS server (secondary/slave);
• l3s1h-dhcp1.linux.local (Debian Linux 11) – DHCP server (main);
• l3s1h-dhcp2.linux.local (Debian Linux 11) – DHCP server (failover);
• l3s1h-wstation.linux.local (Ubuntu Desktop) – Workstation.
(a) Create a VM for each host in the NAT network. Make sure their hostnames are
correctly set (see the above host list).
Start one of the hosts and take note of the subnet, netmask, gateway and dns
server that were auto-configured.
Let’s assume, for the remainder of the question, that these were retrieved:
• subnet/netmask –
• gateway –
• dns server –
These are normally the ones in the default NAT network for VMWare Workstation Pro
Network and System Management
(b) Modify the 4 Debian Linux hosts, changing their ip addresses to static:
• l3s1h-dns1.linux.local –
• l3s1h-dns2.linux.local –
• l3s1h-dhcp1.linux.local –
• l3s1h-dhcp2.linux.local – Replace 192.168.122 above with the
subnet you retrieved in a)
(c) Disable the internal DHCP server on the NAT network.
“Don’t forget to re-enable DHCP once you finish/submit this step or future VMs might
no work correctly! ”
(d) Install the ISC BIND9 Server (bind9 package) on the l3s1h-dns1.linux.local
and l3s1h-dns2.linux.local VMs.
Configure the bind9 service as a primary/master name server on l3s1h-dns1 for
the linux.local domain with the following Resource Records (RR):
• Forward Lookup zone:
– l3s1h-dns1.linux.local with Address
– l3s1h-dns2.linux.local with Address
– l3s1h-dhcp1.linux.local with Address
– l3s1h-dhcp2.linux.local with Address
• Reverse Lookup zone:
– points to l3s1h-dns1.linux.local
– points to l3s1h-dns2.linux.local
– points to l3s1h-dhcp1.linux.local
– points to l3s1h-dhcp2.linux.local
Replace 192.168.122 with the subnet retrieved in a)
Configure the bind9 service as a secondary/slave name server on the l3s1h-dns2
server for the l3s1h-dns1 server.
Hint: Make sure the group bind is allowed to write files in /etc/bind .
(e) Install the ISC DHCP Server (isc-dhcp-server package) on both l3s1h-dhcp1
and l3s1h-dhcp2 VMs. It’s normal for it to fail starting before it is configured.
Configure and start the dhcpd primary server on the l3s1h-dhcp1 host to offer
the following IP configuration on your subnet (ex: 192.168.122.*):
• domain name: linux.local
• dhcp range: →
Or the subnet retrieved in a)
• router:
Or the gateway retrieved in a)
• domain name server:
Or the dns server retrieved in a)
(f) Make the necessary changes to the l3s1h-dhcp1 server configuration so that
l3s1h-wstation is offered the fixed IP address.
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Network and System Management
Also enable DDNS Updates so that the DHCP Server updates the record for
l3s1h-wstation in the l3s1h-dns1 server.
(g) Configure and start the dhcpd service on the l3s1h-dhcp2 server as failover peer
for the l3s1h-dhcp1 server.
(h) On the Unbuntu Desktop host ( l3s1h-wstation ) set the TCP/IPv4 configuration to obtain the IP and DNS addresses automatically. Confirm that the TCP/IP
configuration was successful and the subnet, netmask, gateway, dns server and
domain name are correct.
(i) Prove that the DNS Service installed in d) is working, making use of the nslookup
command (in the command prompt) to resolve the following names:
• l3s1h-dhcp1
• l3s1h-dns1
• l3s1h-wstation
Replace 192.168.122 above with the subnet you retrieved in a)
(j) Stop the bind9 service on the l3s1h-dns1 server and prove that the l3s1h-dns2
is responding to the same dns queries made in i).
(k) Stop the dhcpd service on the l3s1h-dhcp1 server and prove that the l3s1h-dhcp2
is responding to dhcp requests.
• domain name service
• isc bind
• isc dhcp
• bind slave debian
• dhcp failover pool
• bind zone file syntax
• debian dhcp configuration
5. All deliverables submitted via discord#assignments-submission:
1. PDF file with the report
2. The file name should be l3s1h_aXXXXX_aYYYYY.pdf. This code means:
• Level 3
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Network and System Management
• Step 1
• Easy difficulty
• Students that participated in the group
• Maximum: 2 students
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