IST 612 Team Project Final Submission

Now that you submitted your project proposal, you can work on your final submission for your team project.

The due date to submit this assignment is Monday, May 2, 2022, at 11:59 pm.

The final submission has 150 (one hundred and fifty) points.

This assignment must be typed in a Microsoft Word document with 12 pt. Times New Roman font. The text must be double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5″ by 11″) with 1″ margins on all sides. There is not any minimum or maximum page limit.

If you have references, you should document your references including the in-text citations using the guidelines provided in the following publication:

  • American Psychological Association (2009). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Sixth edition. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

You can use the following website to review a good example for using references in this format:

HAVE A TITLE PAGE AND WRITE THE NAMES OF ALL TEAM MEMBERS.

The instructions and template for the final submission start on the second page.

 

 

You must use the titles starting with Roman numerals in your proposal.

      I.         Problem Statement:

It will be directly copied from your proposal. You can write more. If I made any comments on Blackboard for your proposal submission, you should make the changes here.

   II.         Change Strategy:

It will be directly copied from your proposal. You can write more. If I made any comments on Blackboard for your proposal submission, you should make the changes here.

III.         Stakeholders

You will paste your “Stakeholder List” and “Stakeholder Power/Interest Grid” here. You can add new stakeholders, remove a stakeholder if you think this stakeholder is not relevant anymore in terms of both interest and power, or you can change a stakeholder’s position on the grid. If I made any comments on Blackboard for your proposal submission, you should make the changes here.

IV.         Requirements Analysis and Design Definition:

Based on your stakeholder list, the interview questions you asked, and the document analysis, you will analyze the stakeholder requirements, and define the design in this section.

Example:

An organization needs to increase its number of customers. The requirement here is to increase the new customer leads generated. Because there is a focus here on the business needs, the output of the activities to understand this business need would be referred to as the requirements.

However, part of the solution to this requirement is to build a new website and to add additional search engine campaigns. These solutions would be analyzed and modeled in the form of mock screen layouts, specific marketing campaign pages, and so on. These would be example outputs where the focus of the analysis activities is on the solution and would, therefore, be referred to as designs.

  1. Specify and Model Requirements

First, you should create a matrix. Create a requirements traceability matrix. Please check the PPT file “Matrix and Models”.

You should create a set of requirements that all have a certain set of elements, including at least a requirements identifier, a requirements category, a description, priority, status, relationship to other requirements, and stakeholders who notified you about these requirements and/or who are affected by this requirement.

 

You should also use at least two of the techniques as specified below from the BABOK Guide:

  1. People and Roles: models represent organizations, groups of people, roles, and their relationships within an enterprise and to a solution.
    • Organizational Modelling, Roles and Permissions Matrix and Stakeholder List, Map, or Personas.

Example:

You can develop a people and roles model to show all the roles involved in a change management process or project. You may choose to develop a stakeholder map showing roles such as the key project team roles, the business stakeholders involved in the change, and any change implementation roles. The role of relationships concerning the project will also be represented.

  1. Rationale: models represent the ‘why’ of a change.
    • Decision Modelling, Scope Modelling, Business Model Canvas, Root Cause Analysis, and Business Rules Analysis.

Example:

Let’s look at an example of a vehicle sales process. Using the rational model category, a decision model can be used to illustrate the different decisions that must be made as part of the vehicle sales process. There will be multiple decision points within this process and each point will trigger a different flow. Some example decision points in the context of a vehicle sales process are as follows: Is the client choosing a new or used vehicle? Will the client pay with cash or choose a different finance option? Did the client accept the vehicle quotation price or was it declined?

  1. Activity Flow: models represent a sequence of actions, events, or a course that may be taken.
    • Process Modelling, Use Cases and Scenarios, and User Stories.

Example:

In the real-world example of a vehicle sales process, we can apply a process model to represent the activities in the vehicle sales process. Some of the high-level activities can include the following: The salesperson receives a customer inquiry. The customer indicates whether they want a new or used vehicle. The salesperson suggests a potential vehicle to the customer, including a price for the vehicle. The client accepts or declines the offer. If they accept the offer to purchase, then the purchase contract will be produced and signed. However, if they decline the offer, the transaction is closed and the process ends.

All these activities or steps in the process will be documented with a visual activity flow model.

  1. Capability: models focus on features or functions of an enterprise or a solution.
    • Business Capability Analysis, Functional Decomposition, and Prototyping.

Example:

A capability model can be used to represent the different functions that an internet banking application should have. These functions may include the ability for a new user to sign up to the system, the ability to verify existing users, and the ability to enable password changes, as well as functionality to manage a bank account online.

  1. Data and Information: models represent the characteristics and the exchange of information within an enterprise or a solution.
    • Data Dictionary, Data Flow Diagrams, Data Modelling, Glossary, State Modelling, and Interface Analysis.
  2. Verify Requirements

After you finish specifying and modeling requirements, you should check if all the requirements are complete and defined well. All team members should agree on the requirements after all team members conduct a review of all requirements.

Acceptable quality requirements exhibit many of the following characteristics, which are atomic, complete, consistent, concise, feasible, unambiguous, testable, prioritized, and understandable.

Atomic: When a requirement is atomic, it can be understood independently of other requirements or designs. It is also self-contained and can stand on its own as a statement or expression.

Complete: The requirement must have enough detail to be able to work and continue. The level of completeness is not always the same and will depend on the perspective or methodology, as well as when in the life cycle the requirement is used.

Consistent: When a requirement is considered consistent, it means that it aligns with the identified needs of the stakeholders. It also means that the requirements do not contradict any other requirements.

Concise: A requirement is considered concise when it uses just enough information to describe itself. It doesn’t contain unnecessary explanations or content.

Feasible: A requirement is considered feasible when it is in line with the expectations of the project in terms of risk, schedule, and budget or when it is considered worthy of being explored in more detail.

Unambiguous: A requirement is considered unambiguous when it states clearly and straightforwardly whether a solution meets the associated need.

Testable: A requirement is considered testable when it is clear to the reader whether a requirement or design has been fulfilled by a solution or not.

Prioritized: A requirement is considered prioritized when it shows its relative importance and/or value in relation to the other requirements it is associated with.

Understandable: A requirement is considered understandable when it uses terminology that the intended audience will recognize.

You should verify that all the questions below have been addressed:

  1. Have the correct and latest document templates been used?
  2. Have all the calculations and samples been used correctly?
  3. Have the training requirements been addressed?
  4. Have the report requirements been addressed?
  5. Have the policy changes been addressed?

After you have a consensus on requirements, you MUST write that “All team members checked, analyzed, and verified requirements”.

  1. Validate Requirements
  2. Identify Assumptions

Example:

In the context of the vehicle manufacturing company, where a need to save on software maintenance costs was identified, it is decided that the dealer management system of the company will be replaced with a solution that has lower software maintenance costs. The stakeholders, in this case, assume that this change will have an overall cost-saving benefit for the company.

  1. Defining measurable evaluation criteria

Example:

There is a stakeholder requirement to change the current manufacturer of a specific product for a company. This requirement exists to address the need for a faster manufacturing process that also delivers at a reduced operational cost. To measure the benefit of implementing this requirement, the baseline metrics of the current state should be defined and documented. The baseline metrics for this product are that the current manufacturing process takes 3 business days, the delivery time for the product is documented as 2 days, and the cost to manufacture this product is $20 per unit. Once the baseline metrics are defined, the business analyst should work with the business stakeholders to define a target or future state metrics that can be tracked over time to demonstrate the business value of the solution.

  1. Evaluating the alignment against the solution scope

Example:

A stakeholder has received a new laptop and they need to install Microsoft Word and Microsoft PowerPoint on their machine. The documented requirement is that a new mailbox should be set up on the new laptop. The scope of the solution is defined to include setting up the stakeholder’s mailbox. Clearly, neither the documented requirement nor the specified solution will meet the needs of this stakeholder and should, therefore, be re-evaluated. The solution scope would likely need to be changed by eliminating the requirement to set up a new mailbox and replacing it with the requirement to set up Microsoft Word and Microsoft PowerPoint. This also requires the design specification to be updated to ensure that the stakeholder’s need is met.

  1. Define Requirements Architecture

Requirements architecture is not intended to demonstrate traceability, but rather to show how elements work in harmony with one another to support the business requirements and to structure them in various ways to align the viewpoints of different stakeholders.

  1. Define Design Options

The purpose of this task is to define the solution approach, identify opportunities to improve the business, allocate requirements across solution components, and represent design options that achieve the desired future state.

Example:

There are two design options identified for a small project. The first design option describes the approach for implementing software changes to an existing system. A micro-phased approach follows, where only three software changes are implemented during every release cycle. The second design option describes the decision for implementing a new vendor software component as part of the overall solution. With this design option, it was decided to purchase this vendor software component instead of developing it in-house. The business analyst should consider whether this design option will meet all the requirements for the business stakeholders and whether any trade-offs would need to be identified and managed accordingly. If any of these tactical design options require any type of trade-offs to be made in order to successfully deliver the solution, the business analyst must aim to ensure that these trade-offs don’t adversely impact the requirements.

  1. Define Solution Approaches

The solution approach describes whether solution components will be created or purchased, or some combination of both. Business analysts assess the merits of the solution approaches for each design option.

Solution approaches include “Create”, “Purchase”, or “Combination of Both”.

Example:

A vehicle finance application system already exists within a financial institution. Based on stakeholder requirements, it is decided to construct and develop a new module for this system. When it is decided to purchase a solution component to fulfill the requirements, it means that a third party will be involved in executing this solution approach. In most cases, the third party will manage and own the solution component, regardless of whether it is a service or a product.

  1. Identify Improvement Opportunities

When proposing design options, many opportunities to improve the operation of the business may occur and are compared. Some common examples of opportunities include increasing efficiencies (e.g., automating or simplifying the work people perform by reengineering or sharing processes, changing responsibilities, or outsourcing), improving access to information, and identifying additional capabilities.

Example for increasing efficiencies:

A result of implementing a solution is often the automation of some processes or tasks in the business operational area. An example could be that a new timesheet management solution is implemented that removes the need for employees to have their timesheets printed and signed by a line manager before submitting them to the payroll department. This results in cost- and time-saving efficiency.

Example for improving access to information:

By providing more information access to staff who interface directly or indirectly with customers, the need for specialized personnel is reduced. This also helps prevent a customer from being sent from one customer service worker to another to get different types of services or information.

Example for identifying additional capabilities:

You can highlight the capabilities of a new solution that has the potential to provide future value to the business and can be supported by the solution.

  1. Requirements allocation

A real-world example could be that it would be rather pointless to implement a special Christmas-themed product or service at the wrong time of the year.

  1. Describe Design Options

A design option usually consists of many design components, each described by a design element. Design elements may describe:

  1. business policies and business rules,
  2. business processes to be performed and managed,
  • people who operate and maintain the solution, including their job functions and responsibilities,
  1. operational business decisions to be made,
  2. software applications and application components used in the solution,
  3. organizational structures, including interactions between the organization, its customers, and its suppliers.

It will be directly copied from your proposal “IV. Possible Solutions”. You can write more. If I made any comments on Blackboard for your proposal submission, you should make the changes here.

Example:

The clothing boutique company wants to embrace the personalization trend and offer an ability for their customers to customize their orders. They want to remain a niche boutique with an impeccable reputation for quality and customer service.

They are considering the following broad solutions:

  1. Option 1: Establish themselves on the Etsy (or similar) online marketplace and grow from there.
  2. Option 2: Develop their own custom e-commerce solution in-house and from the ground up.
  3. Option 3: Buy an off-the-shelf e-commerce solution with the intent to not do any customization.
  4. Option 4: Set up a regular website (without online ordering capability) but increase their reach through online advertising only.

Option 5: Do nothing and try to weather this economic slowdown.

Example:

You are at point A and want to find a way to travel to point B. These points are all land-based, so you choose to travel by road. You have different transportation options available, such as traveling by bicycle, traveling by motorcycle, and traveling by motor vehicle. These options are all recommended solutions to get from point A to point B; however, the value you will gain by using each possible solution option is very different.

Option 1: If you choose to travel by bicycle, it will be the most cost-efficient but it will take a long time to reach point B.

Option 2: If you choose to travel by motorcycle, you can see that it would be very time-efficient; however, you will not be able to take all your luggage or any of your family members along.

Option 3: If you choose to go by motor vehicle, you know it might not be as time-efficient as option 2 and a bit less cost-effective than both option 1 and option 2, but it brings additional value to you in the form of being able to carry all your luggage and you are able to take your family along with you. If being able to carry your luggage and bring your family is part of your requirements, then option 3 will meet all of your requirements without any additional costs for sending luggage or family separately from you.

  1. Analyze Potential Value and Recommend Solution

The purpose of this task is to estimate the potential value for each design option and to establish which one is most appropriate to meet the enterprise’s requirements.

  1. Expected Benefits

It will be directly copied from your proposal “V. Value”. You can write more. If I made any comments on Blackboard for your proposal submission, you should make the changes here.

Example:

The stakeholders of an organization agree that a new website is required to represent the organization online and they would like an external website provider to manage and implement this solution. It is expected that the new website will run on a faster hosting platform, which could improve traffic to the website and, therefore, also increase product sales. It is expected that a new website will provide the company with a new market image that will make them more attractive to potential new clients. It is also expected that the user experience will be much better than using the current website.

In this example, there are two key expected benefits identified with a particular design option. These benefits relate to an increase in sales (financial benefit) and an improved reputation and brand image, which will attract more customers and satisfy existing customers from a user-experience perspective

  1. Expected Costs

Expected costs can include timeline, effort, operating costs, purchase and/or implementation costs, maintenance costs, physical resources, information resources, and human resources.

  1. Determine Value

The potential value of a solution to a stakeholder is based on the benefits delivered by that solution and the associated costs. Value can be positive (if the benefits exceed the costs) or negative (if the costs exceed the benefits).

Example:

Consider a new prepaid gift card project. The national post office decides to extend its service offering to the public by introducing a brand new product in the form of a prepaid gift card. This card will be sold in all the local post offices around the country. Some of the costs associated with this project include implementing a brand new team to establish and manage the product, establishing relationships with card payment processing and manufacturing third-party vendors, and an extensive marketing campaign for this new product to the public. The potential benefits to the overall business, however, are described as exceeding the costs of establishing a new product line within the first year. After a few months into the project, a new card processing cost is introduced as a result of a legislative change. This means that the potential benefits will only be realized after the second year of operation.

This example describes some of the costs and benefits that exist in a real-world example. However, it also illustrates that the potential value can be affected when change is introduced and new requirements must be met. It is important to keep this analysis relevant to the current situation when design options are evaluated.

  1. Assess Design Options and Recommend Solution

As costs and effort are understood for each solution component, business analysts assess each design option to ensure that it represents the most effective trade-offs. There are several factors to take into consideration such as available resources, constraints on the solution, and dependencies between requirements. Other considerations may include relationships with proposed vendors, dependencies on other initiatives, corporate culture, and sufficient cash flow for investment.

Example for dependencies between requirements:

An organization wants to implement a fully integrated call center solution. In order to be able to implement this solution, they need to replace all existing phone handsets because the existing handsets are not compatible with the special integration requirements for a fully integrated call center solution. In this example, this has been identified as a requirement dependency. Therefore, it must be included for the call center solution to be fully functional when implemented.

  • Business analysts recommend the option or options deemed to be the most valuable solution to address the need. It is possible that none of the design options are worthwhile and the best recommendation is to do nothing.

   V.         Solution Evaluation:

The Solution Evaluation knowledge area describes the tasks that business analysts perform to assess the performance of and value delivered by a solution in use by the enterprise and to recommend the removal of barriers or constraints that prevent the full realization of the value.

An important distinction between the Solution Evaluation knowledge area and other knowledge areas is the existence of an actual solution. It may only be a partial solution, but the solution or solution component has already been implemented and is operating in some form. Solution Evaluation tasks that support the realization of benefits may occur before a change is initiated, while the current value is assessed, or after a solution has been implemented.

Solution Evaluation tasks can be performed on solution components in varying stages of development:

  1. Prototypes or Proofs of Concept: working but limited versions of a solution that demonstrate value.
  2. Pilot or Beta releases: limited implementations or versions of a solution used in order to work through problems and understand how well it actually delivers value before fully releasing the solution.
  3. Operational releases: full versions of a partial or completed solution used to achieve business objectives, execute a process or fulfill a desired outcome.

Choose at least one of the solution components above, and discuss only one of the solutions you proposed in the “Requirements Analysis and Design Definition” section.

You can use https://www.invisionapp.com/ to create an animation of your mobile application.

Please check the PPT file “Matrix and Models” for wireframe and screen layout examples which can be considered as prototypes too.

  1. Measure Solution Performance:

You should provide at least two quantitative measures, and at least one qualitative measure.

Example:

Consider the situation where a new call center software solution has been implemented. One measure to determine whether the solution is performing as expected could be to measure the time spent to resolve a customer inquiry. A decrease in the time spent supporting customers during a single support call will be a positive performance result for the new solution. Another performance measure could be the number of positive customer feedback ratings that are recorded after each successful call.

Example for quantitative measures

A new website has been implemented for an organization. It was expected that the new site will generate 10% more new clients within the first 30 days of being operational and a 30% increase in existing customers returning to the website within the same period.

Example for qualitative measures    

A banking institution has always had major complaints from customers and staff members about the poor usability and low level of customer friendliness of the loan-application process. They also complained that it was a very time-consuming and tedious process. These are examples of qualitative measures that exist within the context of this loan-application process.

  1. Analyze Performance Measures:

Example:

A business stakeholder group from a large enterprise had an expectation that when the network’s data transmission capacity was increased, it would also increase the performance of their primary system in terms of its transaction processing time. After the data transmission capacity is increased, the system performance should be measured again so that the actual improvements in processing times can be compared against the originally expected performance improvements.

While analyzing performance measures, consider the elements, that are “Solution Performance versus Desired Value”, “Risks”, “Trends”, “Accuracy”, and “Performance Variances”.

Example for risks

While analyzing performance measures for an existing loan-application system, it is discovered that certain data fields within the database are being prepopulated with test data (as opposed to real customer data). This faulty data population error skews the analysis done on customer data and makes the current customer data unreliable and incorrect.  This is identified and reported as a major data-integrity risk and is being managed in the same way as a business risk.

Example for trends

A sudden increase in the credit card transaction volumes at the same time of day recorded for a couple of months could indicate a trend in abnormal spending behavior; however, when looking closer at this data sample, the business analyst might find that the data is only collected during a period of high spendings, such as the Christmas season. The results of this data-trend analysis cannot be used for general spending assumptions or measurements because the timing of this data sample is skewing the results.

Example for accuracy

Consider a speed test for websites at a web design company. The same website speed-testing tool should always be used to ensure that all websites are tested against the same benchmark, which will, therefore, make the results from different websites comparable. If the same tool is consistently used, the test can be repeated as often as required and the stakeholders using the measures can be comfortable that the measure remains constant and accurate.

Example for performance variances

The stakeholders of an enterprise had an expectation that the transaction processing times will increase by 20% when the network data transmission capacity is increased. This business value did not come about when analyzing the actual performance measurement results. It is therefore now the role of the business analyst to analyze the results and other factors to try to understand the variance in results. Some of the other factors that could be analyzed in this scenario might be the size of the server, the number of applications or processes running on the server, or perhaps even the age (and efficiency) of the surrounding hardware that is supporting this change. It is a good practice to consider the holistic solution and the relevant business processes

  1. Assess Solution Limitations:

Example:

A new online e-commerce solution has been implemented for a global shoe company. After the implementation of the e-commerce store, the performance was measured for a few months and the actual value was far below the expected value. The business analyst looked at this variance closely and noticed that it was specifically the total amount of international sales that had decreased substantially. After further investigation, the business analyst discovered that the solution didn’t have the capability to change the currency of the shopping cart when dealing with different countries’ customers. This resulted in a lot of abandoned carts and missed revenue from international sales. This was deemed an internal solution limitation that prevented the solution from realizing its full business value potential.

When you assess a solution’s limitations, you should consider the elements, which are “Identify internal solution component dependencies”, “Investigate solution problems”, and “Impact assessment”.

Example for “Identify internal solution component dependencies”

A new workflow is implemented to improve customer communications; however, when the performance is measured, it is found that the new end-to-end workflow process now takes three days longer than before. Upon analysis of the solution, it is identified that part of the new workflow process is a manual email communication step, which, if not managed correctly by the staff members facilitating the process, causes this time delay. There is, therefore, a direct performance dependency of the total solution on this specific manual component, which in turn limits the solution in realizing the full potential value it was implemented for.

Example for “Investigate solution problems”

A new online e-commerce solution has been implemented for a global shoe company. After the implementation of the e-commerce store, the performance was measured for a few months and the actual value was far below the expected value. The business analyst looked at this variance closely and noticed that it was specifically the total amount of international sales that had decreased substantially. After further investigation, the business analyst discovered that the solution didn’t have the ability to change the currency of the shopping cart when dealing with different countries’ customers. This caused a lot of abandoned carts and missed revenue from international sales. This was deemed an internal solution limitation that prevented the solution from realizing its full business value potential. One recommended solution here would be to request location information from the customer visiting the online store. Depending on the location provided, the customer would then be redirected to the appropriate country-specific instance of the online store that can then sell to the customer in their local currency.

Example for “Impact assessment”

A problem has been identified in a customer-management solution that is used in a retail organization. Every time the customer search function is used to search for a specific customer, Mr. Brown, his customer record is not found. However, if a check is done within the database, the customer record for Mr. Brown is found to exist and the search criteria used were correct. This has been identified as a one-off problem and has not reoccurred with any other customer; however, additional quality control measures have been put in place to ensure that this does not happen with any other customer records again. The business risk posed by this problem has also been identified as low, and so no specific mitigation plan is required in this case. It is also decided to accept this instance of the problem.

  1. Assess Enterprise Limitations:

Example:

A complete paperless publishing solution is implemented within a traditional publishing house. The idea is that all core business processes will now only be executed electronically and no more printing of drafts or review copies will be allowed. Therefore, manuscripts that are received into the publishing house will be electronically scanned and recorded, then all editing should be done on-screen. This solution works perfectly on the receiving side of the business; however, the editors are very unsatisfied with the solution as they have always been able to print all the manuscripts to review and edit on paper. They believe that paper-based editing is much more productive and creative and they are threatening to stop work unless they are able to print as they did before. The core business process here, as well as the organizational culture, is causing a limitation to the effectiveness of the solution, thereby limiting the realization of potential business value.

You should consider four elements when you assess enterprise limitations: Enterprise culture assessment, stakeholder impact analysis, organizational structure change, and operational assessment.

Example for “Enterprise culture assessment”

In an attempt to cut operational costs within a company, a new office hot-desk solution is being considered. The idea is that each day, all staff can sit wherever they find an open desk and no one will have a dedicated desk to go to anymore. This requires staff to move all their belongings into allocated locker space because they will sit at a different desk every day. Although most of the staff understand that the change is proposed to save money for the company, they do not see the benefits for themselves and believe this will be very disruptive. They are reluctant to accept the change and therefore are not very supportive. In this scenario, it will be relevant to perform an enterprise culture assessment so that the initiative can identify what cultural changes can be made to enhance the acceptance of the solution. This will also enable the solution to realize the expected value.

Examples for “Stakeholder impact analysis”

Function:

A stakeholder group might have the primary function of analyzing daily sales for a company. They use a daily sales report to execute their tasks. If a new solution provides a new report format as part of a change and this doesn’t include the team’s information requirements to perform their daily sales analysis, then this will impact their group’s function directly and should be included as part of a stakeholder impact analysis.

Location:

Consider the scenario where a new video-conferencing solution is installed in the head office, but it is not implemented in the company’s satellite offices. This means that only stakeholders based in the head office can realize the value of the new solution.

Concerns:

If a stakeholder is concerned that the new video-conferencing solution will cause ineffective and unproductive meetings because of less in-person communication, then this will inhibit their ability to embrace the new solution. If they don’t use the new solution often, then the business value of the new solution will be diminished. It is therefore important to consider this concern from this stakeholder group to ensure that activities are planned to demonstrate the effectiveness and increase the productivity of this solution to this stakeholder group.

Example for “Operational Assessment

A new telephone call tracking and recording solution are being planned for the organization’s call center. To enable detailed phone call tracking and recording, it was determined as part of the operational assessment that new telephone handsets need to be purchased and installed. This illustrates an example of an instance where the organization didn’t have the necessary assets to support the new solution for the call center and will need to be addressed before the full business value of the solution can be realized.

When conducting an operational assessment, you should consider policies and procedures, capabilities and processes that enable other capabilities, skill and training needs, human resources practices, risk tolerance and management approaches, and tools and technology that support a solution.

  1. Recommend Actions to Increase Solution Value:

The purpose of this task is to understand the factors that create differences between potential value and actual value and to recommend a course of action to align them.

Example:

A new online e-commerce solution has been implemented for a global shoe company. After the implementation of the e-commerce store, the performance was measured for a few months and the actual value was far below the expected value. The business analyst looked at this variance closely and noticed that it was specifically the total amount of international sales that had decreased substantially. After further investigation, the business analyst discovered that the e-commerce solution didn’t have the ability to change the currency of the shopping cart when dealing with customers from different countries. This resulted in a lot of abandoned carts and missed revenue from international sales. Because of the long-term effect that this would have on the overall company revenue, a recommended solution here could be to replace the existing online store with an online store that can sell in the currency that is automatically derived from an end user’s geographic location.

You should include at least two recommendations.

  1. Do Nothing
  2. Organizational change
  3. Reduce the complexity of interfaces
  4. Eliminate redundancy
  5. Avoid waste
  6. Identify additional capabilities
  7. Retire the solution

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